Chapter 7: Test and Measurement in Sports
What test would you suggest to measure upper body strength for aged population? [Delhi 2016]
The Arm Curl Test is to measure upper body strength for aged populations.
Explain the procedure for Eight Foot Up and Go Test? [Delhi Outside 2016]
Procedure: Place the chair next to a wall & mark 8 feet in front of the chair. The subject starts by fully seated, hand resting on knees & feet flat on ground. On command ‘Go’ timing is started & the subject stands & walks as quickly as possible around the cone. Back to initial position and sit on to chair. A Person sit down Stop time. Perform two trials.
Which motor quality does a senior citizen lack who finds difficulty in tying the shoe laces while sitting on the chair? [CBSE Sample paper 2015]
The motor quality which a senior citizen lacks while tying the shoe laces is lower body flexibility. As we grow older our flexibility is reduced to a great extent.
Calculate the Physical Fitness Index using short formula for a L2 year old by having completed Harvard step test for a duration of 3 minute and a pulse rate of 54 beats for 1 to 1.5 minute. [Delhi 2015]
Physical Fitness Index = (Duration of exercise in seconds x 100)/(5.5 x Pulse count between 1-1.5 minutes)
Duration of exercise for 12-year old boy = 3 minutes
Pulse count for 1 to 1.5 minutes = 54
So, Physical Fitness Index = (3 x 60 x 100)/(5.5 x 54) = 18000/297 = 60.6
So, by looking at the norms of Harvard Step Test, the 12 year old boy physical condition is under the category of low average.
Which test would you suggest for your grandmother to test lower body flexibility? [All India 2015]
The chair sit and reach test for lower body flexibility.
3 Marks Questions
5 Marks Questions
Discuss in detail about the AAPHER Motor Fitness Test specifically mentioning the various items in this test battery and its administration. [Delhi 2016]
AAPHER stands for American Alliance for Health, Physical Education and Recreation. Various AAHPER youth fitness test items included are as follows:
- Pull-ups (Boys) / Flexed – Arm Hang (Girls)
The bar is hung at a height where students can freely hang off the floor. With the overhand grip, the student should raise his body until his chin is over the bar and lower it again to the starting position with his arms fully extended. Swinging, Knee bend is not allowed. One point is scored each time the student completes a pull up.
Flexed – Arm Hang (Girls)
The height of bar should be adjusted to the standing height of the subject. The student grasp the bar with overhand grip. She then raises her body off the floor with the help of assistant to a position where the chin is above the bar. Now the subject holds the ‘hang’ position as long as possible. The stop watch is started when subject assumes starting position and stopped when the chin touches the bar.
- Flexed – Leg Sit – ups
The student lies flat on the back with knees bent and feet on the floor. The angle of knees is 90 degree. Fingers are interlocked behind the neck with elbows touching the floor. The feet are held by a partner. The student then curls up to a sitting position and touches the elbows to the knees. This exercise is repeated as many times as possible in 60 seconds (1 minute).
- Shuttle Run
The student stands at one of the lines. On the signal ‘go’ he runs, takes the block one and returns to the starting line, and places the block behind that line, he then returns to the second block, which is carried across the starting line on the way back. Two trials are permitted.
- Standing Long Jump
The student stands behind the take-off line with feet several inches apart. He then jumps forward by bending knees and swinging arms backward. Three trials are permitted. Measurement is from the closest heel mark to the take-off line.
- 50 yard Dash
After a short warm-up, the student takes a position behind the starting line. On signal ‘go’ the student runs across the finish line. One trial is permitted.
- 600 yard Run – Walk
Students can run in a group of 10-12 students. When a group is running, the timer can call out times as each student crosses the finish line.
How the Cardiovascular fitness is measured with the help of “Harvard Step Test”? Write in details about its administrative procedure. [Delhi Outside 2016]
Explain in brief “The Harvard Step Test”. [All India 2015]
Cardiovascular fitness is the ability of the heart and lungs to supply oxygen-rich blood to the working muscle tissues and the ability of the muscles to use oxygen to produce energy for movements. Harvard Step Test is a cardiovascular fitness test. It is also called aerobic fitness test.
Administrative procedure of Harvard Step Test
Purpose: To measure the general capacity of the heart and circulatory system for measurement of cardiovascular efficiency.
Age level and sex: It is designed for college man by Brouha in 1943 at Harvard University Laboratory. It is also modified to suit both sexes from Elementary school to college level.
Time Allotment: 5 minutes
Facilities and Equipment: A stop watch, 20″ height bench, partners, stethoscope, metronome, score sheet.
Procedure: The athlete stands in front of the bench or box. On the command ‘Go’ the athlete steps up and down on the bench or box at a rate of 30 steps per minute (one second up one second down) for 5 minutes (150 steps). Stopwatch is also started simultaneously at the start of the stepping. After that the athlete sits down immediately after completion of the test i.e. after 5 minutes. The total number of heartbeats are counted between 1 to 1.5 minutes after completion of the last step. The heartbeats are counted for 30 seconds period. Again the heartbeats are noted for 30 seconds after the finishing of the test. After that third time the heartbeats are noted after 3 minutes of completion of the test for 30 seconds period. The same foot must start the step up each time, and an erect posture must be assumed on the bench.
Calculation of the Score: The athlete’s fitness index score is calculated with the help of following formula:
Fitness index score = (100 x test duration in seconds) / (2 x sum of heart beats in recovery periods)
How can the minimum muscular strength for children be assessed? [CBSE Sample Paper 2015]
Explain the procedure for conducting Kraus-Weber test for measuring minimum muscular strength. [Delhi 2015]
This test consists of six items. These tests are supposed to measure the minimum muscular fitness of an individual. In fact, they measure the level of strength and flexibility of certain key muscle groups below which the functioning of the whole body as a healthy individual seems to be endangered. These tests are graded on a pass-fail basis. But partial movements on each test can be scored from 0 to 10.
The administration of these tests are as follows:
Test No.1: The subject lies down in supine position i.e., flat on his back and hands behind his neck. The examiner holds his feet to keep him on the ground. The subject is asked to perform one sit-up. If he performs one sit-up, he passes this test. If he cannot raise his shoulders from the table or ground, his score remains zero.
Test No.2: The lying position for this test remains same i.e., in supine position except that his knees are bent and ankles remain in touch with his buttocks. He is asked to perform one sit-up. If he is able to perform full sit-up, he passes this test. If he is unable to raise his shoulders from the table or ground, he gets zero.
Test No.3: The subject lies in supine position i.e., lies flat on his back with his hands behind the neck. He is asked to raise his feet 10 inches from the ground. His knees should be straight. The examiner counts to 10 seconds. He passes this test if he holds that position for ten seconds. Scoring from 0-10 depends on the number of seconds he holds the appropriate position.
Test No.4: The subject lies in prone position i.e., on his stomach with a pillow under his lower abdomen and his hands behind his neck. The examiner holds his feet down. The subject is asked to raise his chest, head and shoulders, while the examiner counts to 10 seconds. He passes this test if he is able to hold the exact position up to 10 seconds. Scoring from 0-10 depends on the number of seconds he holds the exact position.
Test No.5: The subject’s position remains the same, but the examiner holds his chest down. The subject is asked to raise his feet. His knees should be straight. The examiner counts to 10 seconds. Scoring from 0-10 depends on the number of seconds he holds the position.
Test No.6: It is also known as floor-touch test. It measures the flexibility of trunk. The subject stands erect, bare-footed, hands at sides and feet together. He is asked to lean down slowly to touch the floor with fingertips for 3 seconds. In this test bouncing or jerking is not allowed. The examiner holds his knees in order to prevent any bend, if it occurs. Scoring from 0-10 depends on the number of seconds he holds the position.
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