Chapter 5: Children and Sports
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How participation in physical activities enhances self-esteem among children? [Delhi Outside 2016]
- Improve Physical Self
- Self Confidence
- Ability to solve problem
- Stop comparing yourself to others
- Non-Blaming Behaviour
- Good self-care.
- Own appearance
- 11. Control on emotions and behaviours
3 Marks Questions
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Write briefly, what is the role of physical activities in improving the quality of life. [Delhi 2016]
Role of physical activities in improving the quality of life as follows:
- Boosts mental wellness
- Improve physical wellness
- Boosts energy level
- Promotes enthusiasm and optimism
- Counters anxiety and depression
- Helps manage stress
- Releases tension
- Improves self – image
- Delays or prevent chronic illness & diseases
- Delay aging
(Any three to be explain, If only points are mentioned give ½ mark for each point)
Sports are good for all age groups. Competitive sports are a showcase of power at the international arena. Supremacy over the other country is indirectly shown by standing at the top of medal tally. To achieve their target few countries are imparting very strict training to growing children. Over the years many organizations have raised their voice against the intensity with which training is scheduled for making an international athlete.
(i). Elaborate any two physiological benefits of exercise in children.
(ii). What are the disadvantages of giving high intensity training to the growing children? [All India 2016]
Physiological benefits of exercise in children
- Exercise controls weight
- Strength the bones
- Strength the lungs
- Promote changes in the brain structure
- Strength the Heart
- Boost energy level
- Reduce blood sugar level
- Builds strong and healthy muscles
- Motor development
- Helps in digestive process
- Improves neuro muscular co-ordination
- Help in staying healthy
(Elaborate any two from above)
Disadvantages of giving high intensity training to the growing children
- Chances of overload
- Early maturity
- Can reach too early top form
- Less flexibility
- Chances of injury
(Explain any two)
Critically, explain the use of dietary supplements in heavy dose for longer duration. Justify your answer with two suitable examples. [All India 2015]
Dietary supplement in heavy dose for longer duration of time is very harmful to our body. It damages some of the internal organs, such as liver and may leads to accumulation of excess body fat. It can even cause birth defects. Excessive calcium in diet for longer time may lead to stones in kidney, vomiting, and headache.
5 Marks Questions
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Elucidate the meaning of motor development in childhood. Discuss in detail about various factors affecting motor development. [Delhi 2016]
Motor development refers to changes in children’s ability to control their body’s movements like walking, jogging, running, climbing, jumping, throwing etc.
Factors affecting motor development:
- Biological Factors: Biological factors are related to the genes. These factors are also known as heredity or genetic factors. The genes which we get from our parents are responsible for various types of development including motor development. The percentage of fast twitch fibres and slow twitch fibres depend on biological factors. In fact, these factors are likely to affect the rate and ability of motor development. These factors are related to body weight, size and strength’ Research studies show that the children with proportionately longer legs, who are not overweight, usually walk earlier than the children with shorter legs.
- Environmental Factors: Environmental factors such as physical and social factors are likely to affect the motor development of children, Research studies indicate that motor development takes place at faster rate in children who are encouraged to explore their surroundings. Generally it is observed that boys are expected to be involved in sports in comparison to girls in most of the society. Boys are encouraged to take part in motor activities. They are given more opportunities to take part in sports activities. Those children, who are not encouraged or motivated towards motor activities have slow rate of motor development. In fact, encouragement, love and security help the child to take risk to explore fearlessly which leads to better motor development.
- Nutrition: Nutrition is also liable to affect the motor development. Indeed, nutritious food promotes good motor development. Sensory motor development is dependent upon nutrition. If children get nutritious food they get stronger which ultimately leads to good motor development. On the other hand, if children do not get proper nutrition they are found to be less energetic and owing to that their motor development takes place slowly.
- Physical Activities: Performing regular physical activities’ enhances the motor development at a faster rate. However, the physical activities must be according to the capabilities of children. Those children, who do not perform or practise physical activities regularly their motor development becomes slow lf they do not perform even minor activities, their motor development also becomes so slow that they take a long time for motor development.
- Opportunities: It is a well-known fact that the children who get ample opportunities to perform more and more physical activities or motor activities are likely to have better motor development. In fact, opportunities to take part in motor activities give a better chance for developing sensory motor activities. If proper opportunities are not given to children the motor development cannot take place in those children properly or there can be slow process of motor development in such children.
- Sensory Impairments: Sensory impairments such as visual impairments and hearing impairments etc. are likely to affect the motor development of children. Due to hearing impairments to follow the instruction about any type of motor activity becomes more difficult’ ln the same way, visual impairments also slow down the process of motor development. On the other hand, if there are no sensory impairments in children they will have better motor development.
- Postural Deformities: Postural deformities in children definitely affect their motor development. Any postural deformity viz. spinal curvature deformities, flat foot, knock knees and bow legged etc. creates hindrances or obstacles in the path of motor development of children. In the absence of postural deformities the motor development in children takes place at a faster rate.
- Obesity: Obesity and overweight have negative effect on the motor development of children. It means that children who are overweight or obese do not feel enough enthusiasm for any motor activity and may even find it uncomfortable to perform it. Motor development in such children takes place very slowly. They take more time to perform motor movement.
Write in details about the physical and physiological advantages of physical exercise during the childhood stages. Explain any Five. [All India 2016]
There are various physical and physiological advantages of exercise for children which are described below:
- Exercise Controls Weight: Regular exercise helps in controlling weight. In fact weight gain occurs when child takes more calories than the requirement of his body. The unused or excess calories are accumulated as fats in his body. In this way, he starts gaining weight which ultimately leads him towards overweight and obesity. Nowadays a lot of children not only in India but throughout the world are getting obese which is the root cause of various physiological problems. Regular exercise helps such children in burning excess calories. The more intense the activity or exercise, the more calories they burn. Regular exercise takes the fat away and lowers the excess weight. As a matter of fact, exercise is beneficial for children in preventing, controlling and maintaining weight.
- Exercise Strengthens Bones: Exercise builds strong bones. As a matter of fact, exercise increases bone density which helps in preventing osteoporosis. If regular exercise is not performed, the bones usually lose their density, become weak, fragile and porous. Hence, exercise is beneficial for strengthening the bones.
- Exercise Strengthens the Lungs: Exercise is beneficial for children because it enhances the lungs, capacity and their efficiency in inhalation and exhalation. It increases the size of lungs. Tidal air capacity and vital air capacity are increased. Even unused alveolus become active. So, it can be said that lungs are strengthened and becomes capable to perform various activities for a longer duration.
- Promotes Changes in the Brain Structure: Exercise changes the brain structure and functions in infants and young children which are beneficial for them. As a matter of fact, sensory stimulation through exercise is essential for maximum growth and development of the young nervous system. It also stimulates various chemicals which help the children to feel happier and more relaxed.
- Exercise Strengthens the Heart: Exercise improves the performance and efficiency of heart. The heart responds to exercise by becoming stronger and more efficient. Exercise not only makes the muscles of heart stronger but increases its size also. Exercise helps in increasing stroke volume, cardiac output, blood volume and total haemoglobin which ultimately improves the function of heart.
- Exercise Boosts Energy Level: Regular exercise usually make the children more energetic. It allows them to be more active and provides enough energy to do a number of activities without getting fatigue. Owing to that children do not get tired and continue to perform many forms of activities for longer duration. Exercise helps in delivering oxygen and nutrients to body tissues. It improves the cardiovascular system to work more efficiently which ultimately boosts the energy level.
- Exercise Reduces Blood Sugar Level: Nowadays, the high blood sugar level is not only the problem of adults but children are also falling into the trap of high sugar level. Exercise is beneficial in preventing sugar from accumulating in the blood by triggering muscles to take up more glucose from blood and use it for energy. Exercise also enhances the level of insulin which also helps in utilizing the sugar level already accumulated in the blood. In fact, it finally reduces the risk of developing diabetes in children.
- Exercise Builds Strong and Healthy Muscles: Exercise is beneficial in building strong and healthy muscles. Due to exercise non-functioning muscle fibres become active. Consequently the strength of muscles increases because the total contractile power of muscle fibres increases. By having strong muscles, children are not likely to have the problem of postural deformities. So they should perform exercise to build strong muscles.
- Exercise Helps in Motor Development: Exercise helps in motor development of infants and children at a faster rate which ultimately helps in making fine movements in later life. By performing exercise in early age the movements of muscles become efficient and smooth. It can also be said that their movements become more attractive.
- Exercise Helps in Digestive Process: During childhood, the growth and development takes place at a faster rate, so for proper growth and development digestive process should be efficient. Research studies indicate that exercise is beneficial for improving the digestive process. It removes constipation, helps in making the absorption of food efficient. Food is also digested properly because glands also start working efficiently.
- Exercise Improves Neuromuscular Coordination: Exercise improves neuromuscular coordination. It takes place more efficiently during stage of childhood. Exercise helps in achieving coordination of nerves and muscles. It is really beneficial for children because it is required to make fine, precise, systematic and balanced movements which are required not only in the field of games and sports but in every facets of life. It can also be alluded that exercise leads to proficiency in neuromuscular skills that are the basis of successful participation in games and sports in the coming years or in adolescence and adulthood. It also increases maximum strength and explosive power.
- Exercise Helps in Staying Healthy: Exercise is beneficial for children because it helps in staying healthy. In fact, it increases the immunity power of children that helps in avoiding diseases. Owing to the craze after fast foods most of the children are falling prey i.e. various diseases or disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and some kinds of cancer. If they do exercise regularly they may remain healthy which is beneficial for children to lead a fruitful life in future.
Participation in physical activity for a longer duration maintain functional fitness among aged population. Justify [All India 2016]
- Controls Weight: Regular physical activity helps in controlling weight. In fact weight gain occurs when a person takes more calories than the requirement of his body. The unused or excess calories are accumulated as fats in his body. Regular exercise helps such children in burning excess calories. The more intense the activity or exercise, the more calories they burn. Regular exercise takes the fat away and lowers the excess weight.
- Strengthens Bones: physical activity builds strong bones. As a matter of fact, physical activity increases bone density. If regular physical activity is not performed, the bones usually lose their density, become weak, fragile and porous. Hence, exercise is beneficial for strengthening the bones.
- Strengthens the Heart: physical activity improves the performance and efficiency of heart. The heart responds to exercise by becoming stronger and more efficient. Physical activity not only makes the muscles of heart stronger but increases its size also physical activity helps in increasing stroke volume, cardiac output, blood volume and total haemoglobin which ultimately improves the function of heart.
- Boosts Energy Level: Regular physical activity usually make the person more energetic. It allows them to be more active and provides enough energy to do a number of activities without getting fatigue. It improves the cardiovascular system to work more efficiently which ultimately boosts the energy level.
- Reduces Blood Sugar Level: Nowadays, the high blood sugar level is the common problem of adults. Physical activity is beneficial in preventing sugar from accumulating in the blood by triggering muscles to take up more glucose from blood and use it for energy. Physical activity also enhances the level of insulin which also helps in utilizing the sugar level already accumulated in the blood.
- Builds Strong and Healthy Muscles: Physical activity is beneficial in building strong and healthy muscles. Due to exercise non-functioning muscle fibres become active. Consequently the strength of muscles increases because the total contractile power of muscle fibres increases.
- Staying Healthy: Physical activity helps in staying healthy. In fact, it increases the immunity power of the person that helps in avoiding diseases.
Draw a circuit training plan for developing strength among school children. [CBSE Sample Paper 2015]
Circuit training plan for developing strength among school children:
Weight training is one of the oldest methods for development of strength. What are its advantages and disadvantages? [All India 2015]
Advantages of weight training:
- Helps in getting good shape: Weight training is an extraordinary training. This is full of magic because it can shape up all people by using appropriate schedules (and sometimes appropriate diet). Fat people can become trim and slim, people can put on weight if so desired. The weak can become strong and the strong can become stronger. The slower can become speedier and the ponderous can become more dynamic. In fact, weight training helps individuals in getting the entire body in good shape. It is beneficial not only for upper body but lower body also.
- Best means of providing fitness: Weight training has a major advantage over other means of fitness. It takes less time, except for throwers and competitive weightlifters who need longer sessions. Optimum gains can be made by spending just one hour, three times a week in weight training gymnasium. It enhances all the components of health related fitness such as muscular strength and body composition.
- Helpful in enhancing athletic performance: A perfect weight training programme is helpful in enhancing athletic performance. The advantages of strength training to athletic performance are enormous. Weight training is one of the most significant components of conditioning programme for runners, throwers, jumpers, wrestlers, boxers and players of football, basketball and other games.
- Best means to develop strength: Today weight training is considered as the best means of securing strength but it requires proper guidance of coaches and expert physical trainers. The weight training exercises have value but have to be done carefully and systematically. In fact, there is no other better means to improve strength, speed and endurance for application to all sports and to all walks of life than by training with weights.
- Increases bone density: Weight training helps in increasing bone density. Research studies which have been conducted in this field indicate that the risk of osteoporosis is lower for the individuals who perform weight training exercises at least three times a week.
- Reduces stress and tension: Weight training is also advantageous for reducing stress and tension.
Disadvantages of Weight Training:
No doubt weight training has various advantages, on the other hand it has some disadvantages too, which are stated below:
- Risk of injuries: While performing weight training, there is always a risk of getting injuries specially when performing exercise without any companion. Whenever you are not able to perform the required repetitions of exercise, at that critical movement if you are alone you may be injured. So you should always have a companion or supporter with you in case the worst happens. In addition you should perform weight training under expert physical trainer.
- Less flexibility: Weight training reduces the level of flexibility if flexibility, exercises are not done along with weight training. However this is a mild or little disadvantage in comparison to many advantages. If flexibility exercises are performed persistently it will be negligible.
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