NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry in PDF

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry

Chapter 1: The Solid State




  1. Level 1 Test 1
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Chapter 2: Solutions




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Chapter 3: Electrochemistry



 

Chapter 4: Chemical Kinetics




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Chapter 5: Surface Chemistry




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Chapter 6: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements



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Chapter 7: The p – Block Elements



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Chapter 8: The d and f  Block Elements



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Chapter 9: Coordination Compounds



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Chapter 10: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes




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Chapter 11: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers




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Chapter 12: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids




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Chapter 13: Amines




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Chapter 14: Biomolecules



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Chapter 15: Polymers



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Chapter 16: Chemistry in Everyday Life



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History of Chemistry – Modern Period

  • During 1600 AD – 1800 AD hypothesis and theories were established on the basis of experiments and observations. Many discoveries were made by scientists – Hydrogen by Cavendish, Chlorine by Scheele and Carbon dioxide by Black. In addition to these Davy, Lavoisier, Kekule, Faradey etc. made important contributions.
  • Since 1800 AD onward, the great scientists of this era Faraday, Avogadro, Grahm Bell, Becquerel, Curie Couple, Rutherford, Ramsay, de Broglie, C.V. Raman, H.J. Bhabha, Heisenberg, Jagdish Chandra Basu, etc. made important discoveries and inventions in many fields on the basis of which the modern science state could achieve the present state. It would be appropriate to accept all of them as well as wishers of humanity and scientist sages.
    • Chemistry in Medicines – Invention and synthesis of new medicines has helped in keeping our bodies healthy and decreasing the mortality rate. We have been protected against the diseases like cholera, malaria and T.B. The pain of surgery has been decreased by antibiotics, antiseptics and anesthetics. Cancer has been treated by the use of Cobalt – 60 (a radioactive element) in radiotherapy. Extracts, vinegar and alcohol are prepared by fermentation and antibiotics like penicillin, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin have saved our lives from infectious diseases.
    • Chemistry in Industry – The articles of use in our daily life are the gifts of industries. Chemicals are used in all the industries like agriculture, animal husbandry, fishery, wood, textile and food industries. Industries are good means of livelihood which strengthen the national economy. From an industrial point of view, it is essential to give information regarding few areas like Plastic industry – is used for making buckets, mugs, soap, shoes, ropes etc. based on a chemical. Rubber industry, metal and alloy industry, fuel industry, paints and varnish industry, nuclear energy, health and hygiene, etc. are based on different branches of chemistry.

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