Chapter 4: Postures

NCERT Solutions Physical Education Class 12th. Download CBSE Study Materials on www.postrays.com in pdf format.NCERT books Solutions
1 Mark Questions

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Question 1:

Suggest two exercises for correcting flat foot.  [Delhi 2016]

Answer 1:

Exercise for correcting flat foot

  1. Picking up marbles with toes
  2. Place a towel under the feet and role the towel with toes towards body.
  3. Sand walk
  4. Perform up and down the heels
  5. Walking on toes /heels / on inner and outer side of feet
  6. To perform Vajrasana
  7. Jumping on toes /skipping rope

(Any two points from the list)

 

Question 2:

Suggest any two free hand exercises for correcting round shoulder? [Delhi Outside 2016]

Answer 2:

  1. Keep your tips of fingers on your shoulder and encircle your elbow clockwise and anticlockwise direction for same number of times.
  2. Pull the shoulders backward and see upward.
  3. Chakra Asana, Dhanur Asana, Bhujang Asana.
  4. .Hold the hanging position on Horizontal Bar for some time.

 

Question 3:

What is “an abnormal curvature of spine at front” termed as? [All India 2015]

Answer 3:

Lordosis

 

Question 4:

Explain the meaning and concept of correct posture. [Delhi 2011, 2014, All India 2013]

Answer 4:

Correct posture means the balancing of body in accurate and proper manner while sitting, standing, reading and writing or during any other action of body. The foremost impression of an individual is gathered from how he stands, sits and walks. In a proper posture, the whole body weight falls on both feet without any effort and the entire body appears to be in a vertical line. In this position all the limbs of body perform their functions efficiently. Posture is dynamic and changes according to the activity.

3 Marks Questions

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Question 1:

What are the causes of Bad postures? Write in brief.  [Delhi 2016]

Answer 1:

Causes of bad posture are as follows

  1. Hereditary / Congenital
  2. Improper diet / Low nutritional diet
  3. Muscle weakness / Poor core stability
  4. Joint stiffness / Very high toned muscle
  5. Accident / Diseases
  6. Lifestyle / Fashion
  7. Lack of education/awareness of correct posture
  8. Delicacy and imitation
  9. Bad habits
  10. Obesity
  11. Fatigue
  12. Lack of rest and sleep
  13. Lack of proper exercise
  14. Unsuitable furniture / poor ergonomic
  15. Poor way of carrying weight

(Any three to be explain, If only points are mentioned give ½ mark for each point)

 

Question 2:

What do you mean by ’round shoulders’? Suggest any four physical activities for correcting round shoulders. [All India 2015]

Answer 2:

Round Shoulders: ln this postural deformity the shoulders become round and sometimes they seem to be bent forward.

The following exercises should be performed for the remedy of round shoulders deformity:

  1. Keep your tips of fingers on your shoulders and encircle your elbows in clockwise and anticlockwise direction.
  2. Hold the horizontal bar for some time.
  3. Perform Chakrasana and Dhanurasana regularly.

 

Question 3:

Highlight the advantages of correct posture. [All India 2011, 2014]

Answer 3:

Correct posture plays a very vital role in every facet of life. In fact, it enhances the personality of an individual. The correct posture is always appreciated in every society of the world. Man’s working efficiency and ability depend upon good posture. How a man proceeds in his life, can better be known by his posture. Its importance can be understood properly, if we go through the following points:

  1. Physical Appearance: It is a natural phenomenon that every individual wants to have a good physical appearance.
  2. Grace and Efficiency of Movements: Sports and games involved various types of movements. Walking, running, jumping and throwing depend upon the abilities of movements.
  3. Physical Fitness: Physical fitness is essential to live a fruitful life. Physical fitness can be achieved, if you have good posture.
  4. Hygienic Value: The erect, straight and vibrant body helps in the proper and efficient functioning of various organs. Correct posture is important not only for physical appearance but also for the health.
  5. Social Value: Correct posture is always appreciated everywhere. The individuals, who have good postures, are usually admired in every society.
  6. Economic Value: Correct posture has economic value in its credit. A man of good posture makes less expenditure of energy, while performing any type of activity in comparison to the person of bad posture.
  7. Change in Mental Attitude: Posture usually affects in the outlook, happiness, self-confidence, determination of an individual. Self-confidence, happiness and determination are the results of correct posture and on the contrary anxiety, unhappiness and pessimism are the outcomes of bad posture.
  8. Improves Speech: Correct posture helps to improve speech because it gives freedom to diaphragm. If there is too much stress on diaphragm, an individual cannot speak clearly and efficiently.
  9. Improves Concentration Power: As a matter of fact, good posture helps in breathing properly. When an individual breathes properly his concentration power as well as thinking ability is improved. In fact, our brain requires 20 percent of oxygen to perform its job appropriately” lf the percentage of oxygen increases in our blood, new thoughts and ideas are developed.

Question 4:

Write a brief note on bow legs and suggest few exercises for correcting this postural deformity [Delhi 2013]

Answer 4:

Bow legs: In this postural defect lower long bones of the legs get bent. They are more common in children, adults and football players. There is an unnatural gait between knees while walking and running. The main cause of this deformity is deficiency of calcium and phosphorus in the bones which result in softening of the bones. In the case of football, legs have to bear lot of strain because of which this deformity occurs. This bending or curvature of the long bones of the legs is called Rickets.

Some corrective measures:

(i) Give children extra calcium and never force infants to make them stand or walk too early in life. Growing children automatically learn to stand or walk when their muscles and bones develop proper strength to do so.

(ii) Never stand for long hours. This puts strain on the legs.

(iii) Put pillow between the legs and try to walk.

 

Question 5:

What are the main causes of scoliosis? Which physical activity works as a corrective measure for this deformity? [All India 2011, All India 2013]

Answer 5:

Causes of Scoliosis: Scoliosis may be due to many reasons but the main reasons are diseases in the joints of bones, under-developed legs, infantile paralysis, rickets, etc. It may also be due to carrying heavy loads on one shoulder, unhealthy conditions, like inadequate lighting arrangement, unsuitable desks, partial deafness and wrong standing posture. It may be caused by congenital or acquired abnormalities of vertebrae, muscles or nerves.

Scoliosis can be remedied by performing following exercises:

  1. Bending exercise should be performed in opposite side of the ‘C’ shaped curve.
  2. Hold the horizontal bar with hands and let your body hang for some time.
  3. Hold the horizontal bar with your hands and swing your body to the left and right side.

4. To swim by using breaststroke technique.

5 Marks Questions

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Question 1:

Explain the meaning of various postural deformities. [Delhi 2011, 2015, All India 2011, 2014]

Answer 1:

Various types of postural deformities are as follows:

  1. Spinal Curvature
  2. Flat Foot
  3. Knock Knees
  4. Bow Legs
  5. Round Shoulders
  6. Spinal Curvature: This type of deformity is related to spine. This deformity is caused by carrying excessive weight beyond capacity. In another way, we can say that weak muscles cause the formation of spinal curvature. The normal lumbar spine is characterised by a moderate anterior hyperextension curve, when viewed laterally. Although there is no absolute standard for the determination of the degree or extent of the anterior convexity of the normal lumbar curve. There are three types of spinal deformities:

(a) Kyphosis    (b) Lordosis     (c) Scoliosis

  1. Flat Foot: Our feet act as the base of support for the body in standing, walking, running and jumping. Flat-foot is commonly found among newly born babies but it becomes a postural deformity if it still persists during lateral childhood. The children with flat-foot deformity cannot be efficient sportspersons. Such children feel pain in feet. They face problem in standing and walking. It is easy to observe whether a person has flat-foot deformity or not. Dip your feet in water and walk on the floor. If there is not a proper arch of footprints on the floor then you have the deformity of flat-foot. In fact, there should be proper arch of the feet.
  2. Knock Knees: Knock knees is one of the major postural deformities. In this deformity, both the knees knock or touch each other in normal standing position. The gap between ankles goes on increasing. The individual faces difficulty in walking and running. He cannot walk or run in a proper manner. Owing to this deformity, they cannot be good players and even they are not selected in defence services.
  3. Bow Legs: ‘Bow legs’ is also a postural deformity. Approximately, it is opposite to knock-knees position. If there is wide gap between the knees when standing with feet together, the individual has bow legs. In this deformity, knees are widely apart. There remains a wide gap between knees when a bow legged person keeps his feet together. This deformity, can be observed easily, when an individual walks or runs.
  4. Round Shoulders: ln this postural deformity the shoulders become round and sometimes they seem to be bent forward.

Question 2:

What are the main causes of bad posture? [CBSE Sample paper 2015]

Answer 2:

Generally, there are various causes of bad or poor posture, but the gravitational factor is above all. Gravitational force acts upon our body, when we sit, lay down, stand, walk, run or perform any other activity. Our body adapts according to action of gravitational force, if we fail to resist this force properly. Following are the causes of bad or poor posture among human beings. These are elaborated below:

  1. Improper Diet: lf we do not take proper diet, the bones and muscles of the body become weak. We get fatigue after some time. Consequently, we adopt faulty or bad posture. Due to improper diet, rickets and pigeon’s chest are common.
  2. Diseases: Various diseases like rickets, polio and infantile paralysis may cause bad or poor posture of a child. Chronic illness may also cause poor posture. These diseases may cause undue curvature of the vertebra.
  3. By Birth: Poor or bad posture may be by birth. Kyphosis, club foot and dislocation of hip are such deformities which are related to birth. These deformities are present at the time of birth.
  4. Due to Accidents: Accidents may cause injuries to the body. These injuries may further lead to physical deformity or poor posture. In accidents, muscles of the body may be damaged permanently. This may also lead to poor posture’ severe burns may also cause physical deformities.
  5. Fatigue: If we work consecutively for a longer duration, we get fatigue and we become lazy and lethargic. So, we adopt bad posture, if we continue that work’ Even after work, when we take rest, we adopt Wrong posture which results in poor or bad posture.
  6. Lack of Fresh Air and Light: Lack of fresh air and light are also responsible for wrong postures. Lack of fresh air may cause kyphosis.
  7. Lack of Rest and sleep: Lack of rest and sleep may also cause poor posture.
  8. Lack of Proper Exercise: Lack of proper exercise may also result in poor posture. So, the exercise should be performed regularly in a proper way. If exercises are performed in a wrong way then wrong posture may be adopted. So, one should also know proper method of exercise.
  9. Lack of Awareness: Lack of awareness regarding good posture may also cause bad posture. If one is conscious or aware regarding postural defects, he will always keep in his mind that he has to make good posture while performing any task.
  10. Unsuitable Furniture: Unsuitable and uncomfortable furniture may also cause wrong or bad postures. Generally school or college authorities do not keep in mind that unsuitable furniture may be dangerous for students. In fact, while making furniture, the age of the students should be kept in mind. School furniture must be carefully constructed to satisfy hygienic standards. The height of the bench should be such that the feet will rest comfortably on the floor. A good back must give support to the spine at the thoracic region. Desks should be of the right height so that a child can write without either lifting the shoulder or stooping down.
  11. Improper Way of Carrying Weight: Improper way of carrying weight can cause structural divergences of the body and specially of the feet. Abramson and Delagi state that weight bearing does bring about changes in the formation of bone. Muscles of the foot get abnormal stress. If it is repeated for a longer time, it may cause poor or bad posture of the foot.
  12. Obesity: Obesity enhances the chances of extra stress on the muscular and skeletal structures of the body. It may cause flat foot, bow legs and knock knees etc.
  13. Habits: If an individual adopts bad habits of sitting, walking or standing, it usually affects his posture. In fact, such habits may lead to the postural deformities of spinal curvature such as kyphosis, lordosis and scoliosis.
  14. Other Reasons: Improper time-table, more mental work, long sittings and over-work also cause bad posture.

 

Question 3:

What are the causes of Round Shoulders? Explain its remedial measures. [Delhi 2014, All India 2012]

Answer 3:

Causes of Round Shoulders:

  1. Round shoulders may be due to heredity.
  2. Sitting, standing and walking in bent position may also result in round shoulders.
  3. By wearing very tight clothes.
  4. Sitting on improper furniture.
  5. Lack of proper exercise specially of shoulders may also lead to round shoulders.
  6. To become habitual to press the chest, specially at the time of bench press.

Remedies:

The following exercises should be performed for the remedy of round shoulders deformity:

  1. Stand in erect position.
  2. Do not allow to drop the shoulder.
  3. Do exercise with rotating the shoulders in backward direction and downward motion.
  4. Do more exercise with shoulder and strengthen shoulder muscles girdle.
  5. Be conscious while you sit.
  6. Exercise for lengthening the chest muscles.

 

Question 4:

What causes Lordosis? How can we overcome the problem of lordosis with the help of exercise programme? [All India 2012, 2013]

Answer 4:

Lordosis:

Lordosis is the inward curvature of spine. In fact, it is an increased forward curve in the lumber region. It creates problem in standing and walking. The body seems to be stiff. The individual feels shame and inferiority. Lordosis can be corrected in early stage.

Causes of Lordosis

Generally imbalanced diet, improper environment, improper development of muscles, obesity and diseases affecting vertebrae and spinal muscles are such causes which result in lordosis. In addition to these causes, not performing exercises and taking excessive food are also major causes of lordosis.

For the remedy of lordosis, the following exercises should be performed:

  1. From standing position, bend forward from hip level. Repeat this exercise for 10 times.
  2. Lie down on your back, raise your head and legs simultaneously for 10 times.
  3. Perform sit-ups regularly.
  4. Halasana should be performed regularly.
  5. You should lie down in supine position, i.e., on your back, then should raise your legs at 45 degree angle. Remain in this position for some time.
  6. Toe-touching should be performed for at least 10 times.
  7. Sit down and extend your legs forward. Try to touch your forehead to your knees. Repeat this exercise for 10 times.

 

Question 5:

Mention the causes, precautions and corrective measures for knock knees. [Delhi 2012]

Answer 5:

Causes of Knock Knees

(i) Heredity: Defects like kyphosis and other genetic defects may cause poor posture.

(ii) Lack of Exercise: Exercise tones up spinal nerves, improves coordination and reduces mental strain, improves physical ability and efficiency. Lack of exercise leads to postural deformity.

(iii) Obesity: Overweight puts extra stress or strain on the muscular as well as skeletal structure of the body which may results in postural deviations.

(iv) Overload: It may develop round shoulders and problem in spine by continuously lifting heavy load on shoulders.

(v) Weakness of muscles and ligaments.

(vi) Long standing.

(vii) Because of local foot wear.

Precautions

(i) Be careful while you walk and avoid prolonged standing.

(ii) Always wear branded shoes/slippers.

Remedial Exercise

(i) Massage under expert’s guidance.

(ii) Reduce your weight by regular exercise or Yoga.

(iii) Walking on outer inclined surface and applying pressure on the outer edges of the feet, can help in preventing knock knee.

(iv) Sit with legs crossed and now press your knees in downward direction.

(v) Do Padamasana.

 

Question 6:

What is Kyphosis? What are the reasons or causes of Kyphosis? Can it be corrected with the help of exercise programme? [All India 2012]

Answer 6:

Kyphosis

Kyphosis implies an increase or exaggeration of a backward or posterior curve or a decrease or reversal of a forward curve. It is also called round upper back. Depression of chest is common in Kyphosis.

Causes of Kyphosis

Kyphosis is caused by malnutrition, illness, crowd, deficiency of pure air, insufficient exercises, rickets, carrying heavy loads on shoulders, unsuitable furniture, weak muscles, shyness among girls and habit of doing work by leaning forward, etc.

The following exercises should be performed for the remedy of Kyphosis:

  1. Sit in a chair, your buttocks should touch the back of chair. By looking upward, hold your hands each other behind the back in such a way that your shoulders may remain in stretch backward. Remain in this position for some time.
  2. Always keep a pillow under your back while sleeping.
  3. Bend your head backward in standing position.
  4. Perform Dhanurasana, the yogic asana regularly.
  5. Lie down in front lying position. Keep your hands near the shoulders. Now straighten up your arms slowly, raise the chest. Head should be backwards. Maintain this position for some time.
  6. Hold your arms out at shoulder level and bend elbows. Snap elbows back return to starting position. Repeat this exercise at least B times for the best results.

 

Question 7:

Staying healthy and active is in direct proportion to the good or had posture one adopts. Comment. [Delhi 2012]

Answer 7:

Yes, it is rightly said that staying healthy and active is in direct proportion to the good or bad posture one adopts. A good posture is that in which the body segments are balanced in the position of least strain and maximum support. A good posture is maintained only when a person exercises daily for at least half an hour. It leads to better coordination and well developed postural reflexes. If one is not engaged in any form of physical activity then he/she will have a weak and deformed physique or a poor posture. As matter of fact, there is no one single best posture for all individuals. Each person must take the body he has and make the best use of it. For each person the best posture is that in which the body segments are balanced in the position of least strain and maximum support but even then there are, some general norms regarding postural positions.

Following activities are recommended to have a good posture:

(i) Physical fitness programme

(ii) Yoga

(iii) Swimming

(iv) Cycling

(v) Aerobics

Bad Posture is caused because of a disease, habit or lack of exercise but eating good food and exercising regularly makes one active and energetic and have a good personality. So, it is rightly said that a good posture or bad posture is in one’s hand.

One must be conscious about one’s lifestyle and way of living. A good posture is always appreciated by everyone”

 

Question 8:

Suggest any five physical exercises as corrective measures for Kyphosis and Lordosis. [All India 2012]

Answer 8:

Kyphosis:

The following exercises should be performed as corrective measures for Kyphosis:

  1. Sit in a chair, your buttocks should touch the back of chair. By looking upward, hold your hands each other behind the back in such a way that your shoulders may remain in stretch backward. Remain in this position for some time.
  2. Always keep a pillow under your back while sleeping.
  3. Bend your head backward in standing position.
  4. Perform Dhanurasana, the yogic asana regularly.
  5. Lie down in front lying position. Keep your hands near the shoulders’ Now straighten up your arms slowly, raise the chest. Head should be backwards. Maintain this position for some time.
  6. Hold your arms out at shoulder level and bend elbows. Snap elbows back return to starting position. Repeat this exercise at least B times for the best results.

Lordosis:

The following exercises should be performed as corrective measures for Lordosis:

  1. From standing position, bend forward from hip level. Repeat this exercise for 10 times.
  2. Lie down on your back, raise your head and legs simultaneously for 10 times.
  3. Perform sit-ups regularly.
  4. Halasana should be performed regularly.
  5. You should lie down in supine position, i.e., on your back, then should raise your legs at 45 degree angle. Remain in this position for some time.
  6. Toe-touching should be performed for at least 10 times.
  7. Sit down and extend your legs forward. Try to touch your forehead to your knees. Repeat this exercise for 10 times.

 

Question 9:

How can physical activities be corrective measures for the common Postural Deformities? [All India 2011]

Answer 9:

Physical Activities as Corrective Measures:

There are several deformities that give rise to abnormal curvature in the vertebral column or any other part of the body. These deformities are:

(i) Kyphosis,

(ii) Lordosis,

(iii) Scoliosis,

(iv) Round Shoulders,

(v) Knock Knees,

(vi) Bow Legs,

(vii) Flat Foot.

These deformities can be corrected with the help of various physical exercises and programmes. For example:

(i) To correct Kyphosis, firstly, the person must make himself conscious while sitting, standing or walking. Secondly, he must exercise regularly to stretch the shoulders back and rotate backward. The hump back may be improved by exercise.

(ii) In case of Lordosis, a few corrective exercises can be Halasana, Paschimuttanasana, slowly stretching the body parts so that hollow back problem can be removed. Some exercises for strengthening abdomen must be done 4-5 days a week under expert’s guidance.

(iii) Exercise for flat foot:

Walk on toes, Picking up objects with toes, Make alphabet in sand with toes, Stretching of heels and toes downward. Flat foot may also be caused by wearing local footwear; therefore, good quality shoes with arc must be worn.

 


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