Chapter 1: Planning in Sports
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List down various types of tournaments? [AII India 2011]
There are four main types of tournaments which are listed below:
- Knockout or elimination tournament.
- League or round robin tournament.
- Combination tournament.
- Challenge tournament.
List the objectives of intramurals. [All India 2014, Delhi 2015]
- It promotes mass participation.
- It provides fun, enjoyment and recreation to students.
- It helps to identify the talent among one’s classmates.
- It develops social values such as honesty, discipline, cooperation and sympathetic attitude.
- Variety of opportunities provide good leadership skills.
How extrinsic motivation sometime may kill intrinsic motivation? [CBSE Sample Paper 2015]
Extrinsic motivation sometime may kill intrinsic motivation because in extrinsic motivation an athlete initiates and sustains an activity as a result of external pull, attraction, forces, incentive, etc. Sooner or later the athlete loses interest and quits sport when the rewards etc. are no longer forthcoming.
What does the organizers intend by stating that, “Only such students shall participate in the Intramurals who have not represented the school in any Football Championship in the past and minimum 10 substitutions shall be compulsory in a 90 min. game”. [CBSE Sample Paper 2015]
What does the school intend by stating that, “Only such students shall participate in the Basketball Intra-murals who have not represented the school in basketball in the past and minimum 10 substitutions shall be compulsory”? [All India 2015]
The benefit of intramural competitions is extended to those students who have never got the opportunities/chance to participate in any competition. The aim is to ensure mass participation of children with fun and enjoyment.
What is league-cum-knockout tournament?
In this type of tournament, all the teams play league matches in their respective pools. Either take out best team from each pool or take out best two teams from each pool. Now the best 4 or 8 (depends on scheme or number of teams) teams are given knockout fixtures and the winner is decided.
What do you understand by Seeding? [All India 2011, All India 2013]
Seeding is a way of spotting the teams and fitting them into fixtures in such a way that strong teams do not meet in earlier rounds. This method is applicable only when the standard of the teams is known to organizers. It is recommended that byes are generally given to the seeded teams.
What do you mean by a Bye? Explain the procedure for giving Bye. [All India 2012, Delhi 20ll, 20l2, 2014]
A team which gets a bye will not play in the first round. Bye is a privilege given to a team generally by drawing of lots, exempting it from playing a match in the first round. Method of deciding Bye: We check whether teams participating is a power of two or not. Such as 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 etc. In case the team is not a power of two then Bye shall be given. e.g., if number of teams participating are 13. Next higher power of two is 16.
Number of Bye = 16 – 13 = 3 Bye
In which conditions knock out tournaments are better than Round Robin? [CBSE Sample Paper 2015] Answer 8:
When we have less time, less manpower and modified facilities, we prefer to have knock out tournaments than round robin. There will be economy also.
What are the objectives of Intramural and Extramural?
Objectives of Intramural and Extramural:
- To provide an opportunity to students within the institute that will be conducive to their overall development.
- To display their skills in various physical activities.
- To have exposure to the competition.
- To gain experience in conducting and organizing intramurals as a part of their training.
Why do we need committee at higher levels tournaments?
Formation of committee at higher levels tournament: It requires careful planning and organization in order to do the perfect work. Many persons work together to achieve the desired objective. So, the following committees are required:
- Organizing Committee
- Finance Committee
- Publicity Committee
- Purchase Committee
- Reception Committee
- Transport Committee
- Boarding and lodging committee
- Announcement Committee
- Officials as per event/sport/game
- First aid committee
- Opening and closing ceremony committee
- Awards Committee
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What is the staircase method of a league tournament? [All India 2013]
The Staircase method: In this method, teams have matches just similar to a staircase, e.g., of 6 teams participating.
Number of matches = (n) (n – 1)/2 = 6(6 – 1)/2 = 3(5) = 15
1 – 2
1 – 3 2 – 3
1 – 4 2 – 4 3 – 4
1 – 5 2 – 5 3 – 5 4 – 5
1 – 6 2 – 6 3 – 6 4 – 6 5 – 6
Drawbacks of the method:
- It does not indicate the number of rounds to be played.
- It is not so easy to fixture concerned round as in case of cyclic and tabular method.
List the steps to form Committees for tournaments. [Delhi 2011]
Steps to form Committees for Tournaments:
Sports events are organised at various levels which include district, state, national or international levels’ Such tournaments require careful planning in order to be successful’ Committees are formed at various levels. A letter is sent to all concerned for participation. Various steps are:
- Meetings are conducted at regular interval.
- Experts in various areas are identified.
- Pre-meet work organising committee is set up for the purchase of equipment, layout of courts, etc.
- Welcome/Reception committee and a Technical committee to officiate during the sports meet is also formed.
Write a short note on “Health Runs”.
Health runs are organised by health department, sports department or social organisations. Usually their purpose is to ameliorate the standard of health in a country along with the raising of funds for charity. Health run is such a great physical activity that offers a significant health benefits’ Health run does not require any specific preparation. There is no competition in it but registration of participants is required in advance. The date and time is also fixed well in advance. There is no age limit in health runs and the distance course of running is also fixed up.
Write in brief about “Run for Fun” Health Programme.
Run for fun is also organised with an objective to spread the message among the masses to remain healthy and fit. It may be organised to motivate the people to exercise regularly and stay healthy. It is also organised in the same way as the health runs. Run for fun is more rerated to have fun during the run. In fact, run for fun is a friendly race that involves either road running or cross country running taking part for their own enjoyment and recreation rather than competition.
Generally’ run for fun is organised to raise funds for a charity. The sponsors only deduct the organisational expenditures. Run for fun can include novel categories such as wearing costumes and age categories for children, teenagers and adults.
Download Long Answer Type Questions
What do you mean by Knockout Tournament? Draw the fixtures of 21 teams on knockout basis. [All India 2013, 2015, Delhi 2014, CBSE Sample Paper 2015]
Most of the tournaments are organised on the basis of knock-out. In this type of tournament, a team which is once defeated, automatically gets eliminated from the tournament. Only the winning teams continue in the tournament. It means that second opportunity is not given to the defeated team. Opportunities are given to the winning teams or players. For example, if four teams participate in knock-out tournament, the winning team is declared in the following way.
In the 1st round, team A and B as well as team C and D play their matches. If team B and team D become the winners of 1st round, these teams, i.e., B and D get opportunity to play in the 2nd round and team A and team C will be eliminated from the tournament. Finally, the winner of match between team C and team D becomes the winner of the tournament.
Advantages of Knock-out Tournament
- The knock-out tournaments are less expensive because the team, which gets defeated, is eliminated from the competition.
- The knock-out tournament is helpful in enhancing the standard of sports, because each team tries to present the best performance to avoid the defeat.
- Owing to less number of matches, it requires less time to complete the tournament.
- Minimum number of officials are required in organising such type of tournaments.
Disadvantages of Knock-out Tournament
- There may be many chances of elimination of good teams in 1st or 2nd round. So, good teams may not reach into the final round.
- There are maximum chances of weak teams to enter into the final round.
- Spectators may not have enough interest in the final match.
What do you mean by league match or round robin tournament? [All India 2012]
League: These are also called Round Robin Tournament. In league system all the teams are treated at par in league tournament. There are two types of league tournaments:
Single league tournament
Double league tournament
Single league tournament: In this type of tournament, every team shall play once with every other teams. The total number of matches in a single league tournament shall be [(n) (n – 1)]/2.
For example, if 8 teams are competing, the total number of matches to be [(8) (8 – 1)]/2 = 4(7) = 28.
Double league tournament: In this type of tournament, every team shall play twice with every other team. The total number of matches shall be n(n – 1).
For example, if 8 teams are competing the total number of matches to be n(n – 1) = 8(8 – 1) = 8(7) = 56 matches.
Explain the formation of committee for organizing sports events. [All India 2014, Delhi 2015]
For organising sports events, various committees are formed for systematic and smooth conduct of competitions/tournaments. In fact, the organisation and conduct of sports events involve a lot of planning and preparation. Generally, there is a committee of management, which is usually consisted of one representative from each institution concerned. This General Committee takes complete responsibility for the success of competition. This committee also forms various committees and divides the various types of work among them. The General Committee is headed by an Administrative Director under whom Executive Committee performs its duties. Organising committee for games/sports events works under Executive Committee.
The organising committee is mainly responsible for the successful and smooth conduct of the sports meet/sports events. Various committees are formed under this organising committee. The description of various committees and their responsibilities are stated below.
- Committee for Publicity: The committee for publicity announces the date, venues and sports events, advance information to the institutions and printing, etc. Its main responsibility is to advertise the sports events.
- Transport Committee: This committee is responsible for providing the facilities regarding transportation of various teams to the venue of sports events place or to the boarding and lodging as the case may be. Its main duty is to make necessary arrangements for transportation.
- Boarding and Lodging Committee: Boarding and lodging committee is responsible for making necessary arrangements for providing accommodation and meals to the sports persons and officials.
- Decoration and ceremony Committee: Decoration and ceremony committee is responsible for the decoration of sports arena or stadium. It is also responsible to make necessary arrangements for the opening ceremony, victory ceremony and closing ceremony of the games/sports meet. This committee also makes arrangements for trophies, medals and certificates.
- Grounds and Equipment committee: This committee is responsible for making the grounds or laying out the track and field. This committee also makes necessary arrangements of equipment related to the game/athletic meet. This committee is also responsible for providing the equipment according to specifications.
- Refreshments and Entertainment Committee: This committee takes the charge of supplying refreshments and drinks to the guests, officials and competitors, etc. It also makes some arrangements for entertainment programmes at the opening ceremony and closing ceremony of sports events.
- Reception Committee: The members of this committee are responsible to welcome the chief guests at the opening and closing ceremonies. It is also the duty of this committee to welcome the other guests and spectators.
- Committee for officials: This committee selects various officials such as referees, judges, recorders, clerks of the course, starters, track umpires, time keepers and lap scorers for athletic meet and referee, umpires, time keepers, recorders and judges, etc. in case of games as per requirement.
- First Aid Committee: First aid committee is headed by a well-qualified doctor. This committee provides first aid to the victim or affected athlete/sportsperson immediately. This committee makes the necessary arrangements for providing help prior to the organisation of sports events because athletes or sports persons may get injuries during the competitions.